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Types of ceramic products

For convenience, ceramic products are usually divided into four sectors; these are shown below with some examples: Structural, including bricks, pipes, floor and roof tiles Refractories, such as kiln linings, gas fire radiants, steel and glass making crucibles Whitewares, including tableware, cookware, wall tiles, pottery products and sanitary ware Technical, is also known as engineering, advanced, special, and in Japan, fine ceramics. Such items include tiles used in the Space Shuttle program, gas burner nozzles, ballistic protection, nuclear fuel uranium oxide pellets, biomedical implants, coatings of jet engine turbine blades, ceramic disk brake, missile nose cones, bearing (mechanical). Frequently, the raw materials do not include clays.[6] [edit]Examples of whiteware ceramics Earthenware, which is often made from clay, quartz and feldspar. Stoneware Porcelain, which is often made from kaolin Bone china [edit]Classification of technical ceramics Technical ceramics can also be classified into three distinct material categories: Oxides: alumina, beryllia, ceria, zirconia Nonoxides: carbide, boride, nitride, silicide Composite materials: particulate reinforced, fiber reinforced, combinations of oxides and nonoxides. Each one of these classes can develop unique m terial properties because ceramics tend to be crystalline. An oxide (pron.: /ksa?d/) is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element[1] in its chemical formula. Metal oxides typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of ?2. Most of the Earth's crust consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Hydrocarbon combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating. For example, aluminium foil develops a thin skin of Al2O3 (called a passivation layer) that protects the foil from further corrosion.[2] Different oxides of the same element are distinguished by Roman numerals denoting their oxidation number, e.g. iron(II) oxide versus iron(III) oxide. Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material and kaolin. It has been defined as ware with a translucent body containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate.[1] Developed by English potter Josiah Spode, bone china is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency,[2] and very high mechanical strength and chip resistance.

 
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