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Launch vehicle fleet

Geopolitical and economic considerations during the 1960s and 1970s compelled India to initiate its own launch vehicle program. During the first phase (1960s–1970s) the country successfully developed a sounding rockets program, and by the 1980s, research had yielded the Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 and the more advanced Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), complete with operational supporting infrastructure.[11] ISRO further applied its energies to the advancement of launch vehicle technology resulting in the creation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) technologies. [edit]Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) Main article: Satellite Launch Vehicle Status: Decommissioned The Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation SLV or SLV-3 was a 4-stage solid-fuel light launcher. It was intended to reach a height of 500 km and carry a payload of 40 kg.[12] Its first launch took place in 1979 with 2 more in each subsequent year, and the final launch in 1983. Only two of its four test flights were successful.[13] [edit]Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) Main article: ASLV Status: Decommissioned The Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation ASLV was a 5-stage solid propellant rocket with the capability of placing a 150 kg satellite into LEO. This project was started by the ISRO during the early 1980s to develop technologies needed for a payload to be placed into a geostationary orbit. Its design was based on Satellite Launch Vehicle.[14] The first launch test was held in 1987, and after that 3 others followed in 1988, 1992 and 1994, out of which only 2 were successful, before it was decommissioned.[13] [edit]Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) Main article: PSLV Status: Active The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The reliability and versatility of he PSLV is proven by the fact that it has launched 55 satellites / spacecrafts ( 26 Indian and 29 Foreign Satellites) into a variety of orbits so far.[15][16] In April 2008, it successfully launched 10 satellites at once, breaking a world record held by Russia.[17] On 9 September 2012 the PSLV flew its 21th consecutive successful launch mission.[18] Its only failure in 22 flights was its maiden voyage in September 1993, providing the rocket with a 95 percent success rate.[19] [edit]Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Main article: GSLV Status: Active The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation GSLV, is an expendable launch system developed to enable India to launch its INSAT-type satellites into geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets. At present, it is ISRO's heaviest satellite launch vehicle and is capable of putting a total payload of up to 5 tons to Low Earth Orbit. The vehicle is built by India with the cryogenic engine purchased from Russia while the ISRO develops its own engine program. In a setback for ISRO, the latest attempt to launch the GSLV, GSLV-F06 carrying GSAT-5P, failed on 25 December 2010. The initial evaluation implies that loss of control for the strap-on boosters caused the rocket to veer from its intended flight path, forcing a programmed detonation. Sixty-four seconds into the first stage of flight, the rocket began to break up due to the acute angle of attack. The body housing the 3rd stage, the cryogenic stage, incurred structural damage, forcing the range safety team to initiate a programmed detonation of the rocket.[20] [edit]Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III (GSLV III) Main article: GSLV III Status: In Development The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organisation. It is intended to launch heavy satellites into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to become less dependent on foreign rockets for heavy lifting. The rocket, though the technological successor to the GSLV, however is not derived from its predecessor. The maiden flight is scheduled to take place in 2013.

 
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