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Extraterrestrial Exploration

India's first mission beyond Earth's orbit was Chandrayaan-1. ISRO plans to follow up Chandrayaan-2 with unmanned missions to Mars, Venus and Near-Earth objects such as asteroids and comets. [edit]Lunar exploration Main article: Chandrayaan-1 Chandrayaan-1 is India's first mission to the moon. The unmanned lunar exploration mission includes a lunar orbiter and an impactor called the Moon Impact Probe. India launched the spacecraft using a modified version of the PSLV is C11 on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. The vehicle was successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008. It carries high-resolution remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared, and soft and hard X-ray frequencies. Over its two-year operational period, it is intended to survey the lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical characteristics and 3-dimensional topography. The polar regions are of special interest, as they might contain ice. The lunar mission carries five ISRO payloads and six payloads from other international space agencies including NASA, ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency, which were carried free of cost. The Chandrayaan-1 became the first lunar mission to discover existence of water on the moon.[43] Following the success of Chandrayaan-1, the country's first moon mission, ISRO is planning a series of further lunar missions in the next decade, including a anned mission which is stated to take place in 2020 approximately the same time as the China National Space Administration (CNSA) manned lunar mission and NASA's Project Constellation plans to return to the moon with its Orion-Altair project.[citation needed] Chandrayaan-2 (Sanskrit: -?) Indias second unmanned mission to the Moon, will have an Orbiter and Lander-Rover module. ISRO will have the prime responsibility for the Orbiter and Rover; Roskosmos, Russia will be responsible for Lander. Chandrayaan-2 will be launched on Indias Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-MkII) around 201213 timeframe. The science goals of the mission are to further improve the understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon using instruments onboard Orbiter and in-situ analysis of lunar samples using Lander and Rover. [edit]Mars orbiter mission Main article: Mangalyaan The Indian Space Research Organisation is preparing for Mangalyaan, an orbiter mission to Mars to be launched in November 2013.[44][45] [edit]Venus orbiter mission ISRO is planning a mission to Venus by May 2015 to study its atmosphere. The probe will reach Venus by September 2015 and would carry at least five instruments.[46] [edit]Solar exploration program Main article: Aditya (spacecraft) ISRO plans to carry out an unmanned mission to Sun by the year 2014. The probe is named as Aditya-1 and will weigh about 400 kg.[47]

 
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